NOTE: While walking the trails, please take care not to pick the flowers or disturb the wildlife.
"Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints."
One of over 100 species of Hawthorn found in North America, this member of the Rose family has many stout thorns and tangy, edible fruit.
The route regularly taken by an animal as it travels between resting areas and feeding areas.
A member of the Honeysuckle family, Nannyberry has long, slender beige buds; opposite leaf arrangement; clusters of small, creamy white flowers and edible, bluish-black berries.
Canada Goose Cones
Canada Geese prefer to build nests on small islands or marsh banks. If they cannot find a suitable site, geese will use artificial nests.
One need never starve where cattails grow! At different times during the year, all parts of the plant (except the leaves) are edible.
Recognized by compound leaves that are opposite in arrangement. A wetland is called a swamp when trees or shrubs are the dominant vegetation type.
The inner bark of the Eastern White Cedar or Aborvitae, the tree of life, was used by Jacques Cartier to treat scurvy among his crew.
Speckled Alder Thicket
Usually found along a wetland edge. Speckled Alder shrubs add fertility to the soil by transforming gaseous nitrogen into compounds useful to plants.
The plant filling the marsh by mid-summer is wild rice. The ripening grain may be collected, thoroughly dried, washed in cold water and prepared like brown rice or ground into flour. (Warning: ERGOT, poisonous pink or purplish fungi, can replace some of the seeds.)
The roots of the White Spruce are so pliable that Native Americans would use them for placing the birch bark on canoes.
Ontario's arboreal emblem. The White Pine is the only pine in Eastern Canada with five needles in a bundle.
The only evergreen that is not evergreen! In autumn the Tamarack's needles turn yellow and are shed from the tree.
Grey Birch bark does not peel easily and has black patches. The leaves are triangular in shape with long, drawn-out tips.
This tall grass-like plant can form dense and enormous stands in ponds, marshes and ditches. The plants spread by means of rootstocks that may be 30 feet long. Edible uses include crushing and washing the rootstocks to obtain flour.
(Look to the right and ahead on the left.) Our most common fern as it grows in large colonies almost anywhere. Bracken is a tall, strong and coarse fern with leaves divided into three nearly equal parts. Fiddleheads can be eaten raw or cooked. (Warning: Cooking recommended. Raw plant contains an enzyme which, when ingested in sufficient quantities, destroys vitamin B1 [thiamine].)
This thick jumble of understorey plants offers ideal habitat and protection for many woodland creatures. Chipmunks, squirrels, shrews and rabbits find shelter here. Ground feeding birds such as Robins, Catbirds, Brown Thrashers and Winter Wrens scratch around here for insects and seeds.
For further information, contact the Upper Canada Migratory Bird Sanctuary at 613-537-2024.